How to deal with floating point number precision in JavaScript?

Floating point numbers in JavaScript can sometimes result in unexpected precision errors. This can be particularly problematic when performing arithmetic operations, as the result may not match the expected output. In this article, we will explore the cause of floating point precision errors and discuss various techniques to handle them effectively.

Understanding the problem

When working with floating point numbers in JavaScript, it's important to understand that they are represented in binary format. Due to the inherent limitations of binary representation, some decimal numbers cannot be accurately represented. This can lead to rounding errors and imprecise results.

For example, consider the following code:

var result = 0.1 + 0.2;

The expected result of this expression is 0.3. However, due to floating point precision errors, the actual result is:

console.log(result); // 0.30000000000000004

Solution 1: Using toFixed()

One way to deal with floating point precision errors is to use the toFixed() method. This method converts a number to a specified decimal precision by rounding the number if necessary.

For example, to get the expected result of 0.3 with two decimal places, you can use the following code:

var result = (0.1 + 0.2).toFixed(2);
console.log(result); // "0.30"

Keep in mind that toFixed() returns a string representation of the number, so you may need to convert it back to a number if further calculations are required.

Solution 2: Using Math.round()

Another approach is to use the Math.round() function to round the result to a specific number of decimal places.

For example, to round the result of 0.1 + 0.2 to two decimal places, you can use the following code:

var result = Math.round((0.1 + 0.2) * 100) / 100;
console.log(result); // 0.3

By multiplying the sum by 100 and then dividing it by 100, we effectively round the result to two decimal places.

Solution 3: Using a custom function

If you prefer a more flexible solution, you can create a custom function to handle floating point precision errors.

Here's an example of a custom function that rounds a number to a specified number of decimal places:

function roundToDecimal(number, decimalPlaces) {
    var factor = Math.pow(10, decimalPlaces);
    return Math.round(number * factor) / factor;

var result = roundToDecimal(0.1 + 0.2, 2);
console.log(result); // 0.3

This function first calculates the factor needed to shift the decimal point based on the specified number of decimal places. It then multiplies the number by the factor, rounds it to the nearest integer, and divides it by the factor to get the desired result.

Solution 4: Using a library

If you frequently encounter floating point precision issues in your JavaScript code, you may consider using a library that provides more precise arithmetic operations. One such library is big.js, which offers arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic.

By using big.js, you can perform accurate calculations with decimal numbers without worrying about floating point precision errors. The library provides a comprehensive set of functions for arithmetic operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.


Floating point number precision can be a challenging issue in JavaScript. By understanding the limitations of binary representation and using appropriate techniques, such as toFixed(), Math.round(), custom functions, or libraries like big.js, you can effectively handle these precision errors and obtain accurate results in your JavaScript projects.